Protection of surface water bodies against pollution by nutrients and heavy metal ions
New methods have been developed for sample preparation and analysis of heavy metal ions in water based on polarography, which provide an accuracy of 2-6 orders of magnitude higher than those known today. Methods for determining trace concentrations of heavy metal ions in water have been developed. New processes of separation and removal of ions of heavy metals, chromates and other anions from acidic and alkaline solutions have been studied and developed to produce metals and chemical reagents suitable for reuse. No-waste processes of removal of biogenic elements from natural and waste waters are created with the use of ion exchange, sorption and biosorption. New highly efficient processes for extracting nitrogen compounds from aqueous media have been developed that allow the preparation of drinking water from natural sources contaminated with ammonium or nitrates. Perspective and effective technologies for purifying waters of different origin from ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and heavy metal ions have been developed, which are characterized by the complete utilization of waste produced in technological processes. Designs for electrolytic cells (two- and three-chamber cells) have been developed that allow the processing of eluates containing sodium, calcium or magnesium chlorides to produce alkali and hypochlorite and sodium chloride solutions suitable for water disinfection and disinfection. Technological processes of processing regeneration solutions in nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers have been developed. Principles of water preparation and treatment in resource-saving technologies are proposed. All technologies are adapted to purification of natural and waste water of various origin.