It was found that cereal stems and industrial plant fibers contain more minerals than wood, which must be taken into account in the pulping process. The processes of cellulose production from stems and fibers of non-wood plant materials (NWPM) have been investigated with an ecologically safer organosolvent method of delignification using peracetic and performic acids. The influence of the main technological parameters of cooking on the quality indicators of theobtained pulp from NWPM is determined.
A comprehensive methodology for evaluating the efficiency of the functioning of the information environment, which includes a thermal imaging surveillance system (TPSS), installed on mobile carriers, such as drones, micro- and nano-satellites, has been developed. Basic scenarios for performing typical surveillance tasks are discussed, namely, finding, detecting, recognizing and identifying objects against the background of internal system noise, or noise whose energy brightness is described by Gaussian distribution.
The risks of underground construction are estimated and the mechanism of structural failure due to dynamic effects from metro trains in conditions of sandy water saturated soils is established, which is associated with secondary subsidence of the metrotunnel during deformation of the soil base with the formation of a creeping prism, with different intensities of this process along the tunnel route.
The work is devoted to the creation of a nanosatellite (CdS) format Cubesat, 3U by developing, modeling and researching efficient service subsystems to provide a payload - an opto- electronic scanner with a capability of shooting in the range of up to 30 m when it operates in orbit at altitudes up to 700 km.
The above works are carried out by the students of the undergraduate, postgraduate students and research staff of the following faculties: TEF, PTF, FEL, FAA, PBF and MMI, as well as attract specialists of PJSC "Pivdenne" (Dnipropetrovsk) as consultants.
The potential range of electrochemical stability of titanium and catalytically active electrodes based on it in solutions of sulfuric and perchloric acid is determined. It was established that the production of hydrogen cyanide in the process of anodic oxidation of thiocyanate with a current efficiency of HCN of about 100% is possible using a 1 M KSCN solution.
A new technology of processing of bioremediation with obtaining energy carriers while simultaneously clearing sewage from fish farms with a closed cycle of water supply has been developed. A closed cycle of waste processing has been created, in which at each stage the necessary association of microorganisms is selected. The purification of sewage from biogenic elements is proposed with the help of microalgae, the metabolism of which is guided by change for the purpose of increased release of triacylglycerols (raw materials for biodiesel fuel production).
New methods have been developed for sample preparation and analysis of heavy metal ions in water based on polarography, which provide an accuracy of 2-6 orders of magnitude higher than those known today. Methods for determining trace concentrations of heavy metal ions in water have been developed. New processes of separation and removal of ions of heavy metals, chromates and other anions from acidic and alkaline solutions have been studied and developed to produce metals and chemical reagents suitable for reuse.
A new model of information transformations was developed for remote thermal imaging from an aircraft or space vehicle. This model takes into account characteristics of background, targets, the optical system and the matrix detector, which allows us to explore ways to improve the technical characteristics of the system’s main blocks. The computational algorithms are based on spatial-frequency filtering in the signal propagation paths and allow performing the tasks of analysis and synthesis of systems with or without visual perception. The model is compatible with the current NATO standards.
Developed gas diffusion catalytically active 3D-electrodes based on valve metal having a two-level three-dimensional structure comprising a microporous composite electrocatalytic coating applied to a discontinuous basis, and a porous regular of the electrode structure, which may include both electrocatalytically active material, and a mixture of the latter with other disperse materials.
Scientific and technological bases of renewable raw materials conversion in biohydrogen and biomethane were grounded; conditions of increasing of renewable raw materials conversion rate and energy production in the enzymatic separation process into two stages were defined. Rational technological parameters stages were determined. This allows forming highly effective microorganisms associations that are able to maximize the rate of different raw materials conversion and halve its duration. Rational technological parameters of biohydrogen (biomethane) obtaining were defined.