Scientific bases of expansion of the fund of sources of water supply of the population, elimination of threats to national security of Ukraine in the ecological sphere

In the scope of the work, an analysis of the water supply of residents of the Donetsk region and other regions of Ukraine with natural and anthropogenic sources of water suitable for further processing was carried out, the chemical composition of waters of various origins was determined, and the possibility of their additional processing to provide consumer properties was determined. Possible methods of pre-treatment of water are proposed, which ensure long-term and uninterrupted operation of baromembrane installations. The effectiveness of using mechanical clarification, decolorization and softening in water pretreatment processes has been investigated. The dependence of membrane efficiency on water mineralization was determined and the conditions for its increase were proposed. The peculiarities of the application for water stabilization treatment of various types of cations have been studied. The processes of processing concentrates using barium compounds, sodium hydroxoaluminate, and aluminum hydroxochlorides were studied. The use of metallic aluminum in the processes of removing sulfates from aqueous solutions has been studied. Electrochemical methods of processing concentrates using electrolyzers of various designs have been studied in detail.

The processes of desalination of concentrates with the simultaneous content of hardness ions, chlorides and sulfates are proposed. The processing of sodium chloride solutions in a three-chamber electrolyzer with an iron anode is considered. The processes of concentrating sodium chloride solutions during the processing of concentrates for baromembrane water purification have been developed. The scientific principles of using materials with capillary properties in phase separation technologies have been formed and the main factors affecting their effectiveness have been determined. The technology of processing scum and activated sludge in phase separation processes using materials with capillary properties is substantiated and proposed.

The processes of intensification of evaporation by physical methods using materials with capillary properties are considered. Several designs of devices for evaporation of concentrates and their neutralization by crystallization have been developed. A complex technological scheme for water supply in low-water regions has been developed.

Фільтр для розділення рідкої та твердої фаз
PDF icon 2023-4-1686.pdf255.04 KB