градієнтні стани

Formation of gradient states in nano layered metal film compositions via processes on the outer surface

Laws of energy induced diffusion phase-structural transformations in film functional-gradient materials with significantly different thermodynamic and crystal-chemical properties of the layers (V-Ag, Pd-Ho, Ni-Cu-Cr, etc.) were determined.
“Diffusion pump” effect was determined for investigated nanothickness materials: physical and chemical processes on outer surface thermodynamically determine diffusion phase formation in the bulk during energy impact in argon-, nitrogen-, oxygen-, hydrogen- containing atmospheres and in vacuum of 10-3 Pa, 10-7 Pa.