Creation low-waste of technology baromembranes of clearing mineralized of waters
The processes of illumination of low mineralized and salt waters are studied with the use of additional reagents. Possibility of the use and efficiency are set in the processes of illumination of different types of coagulants and flokulants, selected most suitable from them for illumination of low mineralized, the optimal doses of reagents, condition of their use are certain, limiting factors that determine efficiency of discolouration with the help of chemical reagents are set. The processes of the reagent softening of waters of this type are studied. The terms of receipt of quality filtrate are investigational at previous stabilizing treatment of water. It is set that further treatment of water on baromembrane options allows to get as filtrate to 90 - 95 % from an initial volume. Thus the far of water goes back into a technological process after processing of concentrates of reagents, by electrochemical or ionic exchange methods.
The processes of exception of sulfates are investigational from water solutions with the use of connections of calcium and barium. It is set that the exception of sulfates from solution of sulfate of natrium with the help of lime is possible only during neutralization of alkaline solutions that appear after addition of lime and aluminate natrium. The processes of water treatment are studied from sulfates with her simultaneous softening at treatment a lime and metallic aluminium. It is shown that efficiency of process grows at the increase of surplus of lime and aluminium, and also at moving away of remain of lime with the help of carbon dioxide. It is set that the limiting stage of process is diffusion of solution to the surface of metal, and the degree of exception of sulfates arrives at a high value at a temperature 20 °С regardless of their initial concentration in water. On the basis of undertaken studies creation effective processes of previous treatment of water, going out descriptions of natural waters, with the achievement of necessary stability of water for providing of high exit of filtrate at the minimum volumes of liquid wastes - concentrates.
Application of method of electrolysis is investigational in electrolyzers with ionic exchange membranes for processing of chlorine capacious concentrates and regeneration solutions with the receipt of acid, meadow, reagents for the disinfestation of water. It is set that the presence of acid or meadow in working solution small influences on efficiency of process. On the whole, it be possible to say, that at the electrolysis of sour solutions going goes down beyond the current of meadow, and at the electrolysis of alkaline solution going goes down beyond the current of acid. In relation to efficiency of electrochemical methods of processing of regeneration solutions, then it is possible to say, that she is first of all determined by the concentrations of acid and meadow, that can be got as a result of realization of these processes. The sphere of the use of the got reagents considerably broadens at the achievement of high concentrations (20 % and higher). At the subzero concentrations of acid and meadow them the repeated use will very limit. In general case, an electrodialysis can be effectively applied for processing of sour, neutral and alkaline exhaust regeneration solutions of sulfate of natrium with the receipt of acid and meadow.
Low wastes technology of demineralization of low mineralized waters is created. The results got at stabilizing treatment of water with the help of subacid cationite in a sour form and results on the exception of sulfates from concentrates at their softening by a lime are fixed in basis of development. In a flowsheet previous illumination of water is conducted by treatment a coagulant and flokulant at twophasic filtration. For stabilizing of water in relation to to sediment of deposit on a membrane water is skipped through the cation-exchange filter filled by a subacid cationite in a sour form. Thus lye of solution goes down to the zero, рН goes down to 2,7-4,0, concentration of ions of calcium - to the values less 1,50 mg-ecv/dm3. Therefore even at the degree of selection of filtrate a more than 90 % concentration of sulfate of calcium in a concentrate does not exceed 20 mg-ecv/dm3 (1360 mg/dm3), that considerably below to solubility of gypsum in water. For the disinfestation of water use an electrolyzer that provides formation of hypochlorite of natrium from solution of chlorous natrium. Solution of chloride of natrium is prepared with the use of the cleared water that did not pass the stage of mineralized. The chart of demineralization of salt water envisages softening of water on ion-exchange filters, that provides reliable work of membranes. The regeneration of ion-exchangers comes true by a concentrate before an upcast in a sea. The selection of filtrate is determined by selectivity of membranes and osmolality.