Fundamental bases of the organochemical leaching of the metals coloured, rare-earth and precious from mineral natural and second technogenic raw material

Investigation of the mechanisms of bioleaching minerals extractant can use their patterns for selective removal of target chemical elements. The estimation of possibility of organic acids to the reactions of lixiviating was executed after classic thermodynamics parameters – the change of energy of Gibbs (∆G0f), enthalpy of formation of reaction products (∆H0f), entropy of reaction (∆S0f), energy of activating of lixiviating process (Er), constant of equilibrium of reaction (Kr) and energy of crystalline grate of having a special purpose mineral (Ucryst). Algorithm of prognostication of motion of reaction and it energetical possibility is based on determination of ionic force (to the degree of dissociation) of organic acid, pH and temperatures of reaction mixing, degree of dispersion of mineral phase, by correlation of hard phase (the mineral) to the liquid (the solution of acid) and activity of interfusion of reaction components.

On the created model of keyer of processes of minerals bioconversion research of him is conducted technological possibility to the acceleration of motion of reactions with participation of organic acids in thousands, or even and millions one times. Due to such device it is possible it is enough operatively to define possibility of that or other biogenic factor to lixiviating of minerals, or vice versa – to estimate firmness or fitness of separate types of minerals to dissolution organic compounds. Deep research of processes of bioconversion of mineral raw material, that, converting of minerals into soluble (or insoluble) salts with participation of organic acids, allowed to decide a number of theoretical and technological problems of hydrometallurgical methods of extraction of targets chemical elements. Using the row of factors of biological origin - such organic acids, as lactic, oxalic and others like that, it was well-proven that due to the physical and chemical properties and at certain terms, the last provide the effective (to 90 – 95%) enough opening of carbonat- or phosphatenclosings minerals. Using a number of biological factors - such organic acids as lactic, oxalic, etc., it was shown that due to their physical and chemical properties and, under certain conditions, the latter provides quite effective (90 - 95%) the disclosure of carbonate and phosphate minerals. Our studies have shown that resistant to leaching of gold becomes soluble with sulphureous factors (thyokarbamide) only after preliminary decarbonization and dephosphatyzation of the minerals with organic acids. Based on the calculations and analyzes substantiated the fundamental principles of a new technology mineral processing using biogenic factors of microbial origin. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the expediency of using this technology in the mining industry.

Загальний вигляд піриту (FeS2) (ліворуч) та доломітової породи (CaCO3∙MgCO3)
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