Scientific foundations of corrosion of micro- and nanostructured materials in electrochemical systems, sensors and supercapacitors
The scientific foundations of corrosion micro- and nano-structured materials in electrochemical systems, sensors and supercapacitors, which are based on the new classification of corrosive processes. Scientific novelty create a foundation is in the experimental and theoretical justification identifying the crucial role of corrosion processes on the kinetics of electrode processes under extreme operating conditions these systems. Show that there is a scale of corrosion rate, under which so far only taken into account corrosion faster 0.001 mm/year, is not suitable for classification of corrosion processes in electrochemical systems, sensors and supercapacitors. We prove the scientific and technical feasibility of accounting corrosion and micro-electrode materials nanostrucurated slower 0.001 mm / year, because it determines the formation as the background (noise) signals and the self-discharge and analytical power and current target operation of electrochemical systems.
Introduced a new concept - "infraslow corrosion" - a set of processes based on oxidation of the electrode material with a nominal depth indicative of the rate of less than 0.001 mm/year, based on which the classification of similar and different features of these systems and developed original methods of research. Theoretically proven and experimentally confirmed that the maintenance of kinetic parameters of electrode processes in the open electrochemical system provides stable progress infraslow corrosion under conditions that permit the growth of a contradiction between the electrodes and the hydrophilization increases contact resistance, and other products with a combination of oxidation and degradation of electrode material. For the first time revealed infraslow (with a period of more than a few days), change the parameters of electrochemical systems, despite the fact that until now these parameters recognized only drift with constant trend and vibrational thought only the changes that occurred with a frequency of a few kilohertz (for electrochemical noise). This slow oscillations disregarded, wrongly writing off their natural cyclical changes in the conditions for experimentation and exploitation.
The mechanism of formation of the basic kinetic characteristics of processes in open electrochemical systems (conversion factor, the background current) which meet the conditions fixed by definition, but to a large extent based on the unsteady and stochastic phenomena. For the first time explain the nature of the formation of the value of the duration of the transition process in establishing a reliable signal of the electrochemical amperometric sensor system.
Determination of the non-stationary nature of infraslow corrosion materials with micro and surface nanostructurated allowed to give an explanation of aging catalytically active materials. For the first time revealed the corrosive nature of oscillatory processes that are responsible for maintaining the kinetic characteristics of processes at the electrodes of electrochemical systems. Based on the concept of infraslow corrosion developed methods of artificial elimination of unwanted drift kinetic parameters of electrode processes. Given the nature of the corrosion products semiconductor, photoelectric effect is used to achieve local redistribution half reaction speeds infraslow corrosion in templating processes of formation of micro- and nanostructure surface. For the first time used a template from a polyfunctional oligomer stabilized nanosized sol salt of heavy metal, which simultaneously carries in the growth zone of the components (heavy metal ions) to build a semiconductor structure with nano-sized accuracy. Unsteady oscillating infraslow corrosion processes support structure received up to 6 months and allowed for the first time to distinguish between the definition of the two oxidants (ozone and nitrogen dioxide) at one electrode without changing the building and without prior chemical filters.