Development of eco-efficient technological processes and evaluation of environmental sustainability and safety of production systems, industrial objects and territorial units (complex project)
A number of systems and single indicators for environmental sustainability assessment of different level objects is proposed. An assessment of sustainable development environmental dimension of world countries and regions of Ukraine with inverse interpretation in the context of quality and security of human life is carried out. The profiles of regions of Ukraine are generated with marking out of indicators of the greatest interest from regional development processes management point of view considering social-environmental-economical sustainability. The indicator of territory radionuclide contamination for impact’s assessment of Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster’s environmental effects is proposed and the cartographic visualization of estimations of territory radionuclide contamination on the regional bases is carried out. Multipurpose indicators for sustainability assessment of industrial objects and systems are proposed.
The new conceptual model for building a risk assessment system of economic activity objects in technogenic loaded urban ecosystems is used for the first time. The methodology for assessment of technological safety and risks for object of economic activity is developed on the basis of the proposed model. Developed index assessment methodology of environmental safety level of a projected industrial facility allows quantifying environmental hazard of environmental impacts from industrial facilities and determining predicted environmental risk. The method for technogenic hazards estimation for economic activity objects is developed. Proposed method implements the information aggregation principle for decision-making and provides transformation of resulting quantitative estimate into other indicator systems. The method is brought to the technique and the appropriate software. The software package RISK_OVNS for environmental safety evaluation is developed which allows calculating the required environmental performance indicators of industrial safety for projected object and monitoring of ecological safety changes.
The new eco-efficient processes of emissions neutralization from industrial facilities and corrosion protection of metals and alloys with new inhibitors are designed. The concept and design of the new centrifugal dust collector - cyclonic dust collector – is developed. The model of experimental apparatus for laboratory and industrial research is made. Dust collector can be used for emissions dust control in the metallurgical, cement, coke, food and other industries. The computer model of cyclone dust collector is developed and its numerical and analytical studies are carried out. As a result, it is found that the optimal ratio of diameters of the outer and inner shells is Dout. = (1.1-1.3)Din. The technological sorption / desorption process of nitrogen oxides on synthetic zeolites is developed and implemented.
It was developed the new type volatile inhibitors of atmospheric corrosion according to the current trends of “green technologies”. The main component (95%) of developed compositions is environmentally safe and annually renewable plant material.
Research the inhibitory efficiency and physicochemical properties (surface tension, vapor pressure) of izopropanolnyh extracts of several types of plant materials are analyzed. The most advanced of kindі on creation of volatile inhibitors of atmospheric corrosion on their basis are determined. It is shown that hops and rape seeds have optimal set of properties.
According to the study and analysis of the chemical composition of plant extracts (organic and mineral) compounds are determined that make main contribution to inhibition of corrosion processes. Izopropanol extracts of these plants are a mixture of surface-active organic substances containing functional groups that are capable of inhibiting corrosion processes on the surface of ferrous metals in the periodic condensation for 20 days at 73 – 93 %.
Accounting for the chemical composition of plant material compounds synergists are selected which enable generation of synergistic compositions to protect ferrous and non-ferrous metals (copper and brass) at 99.9 %. The mechanism of plant and inhibiting compositions extracts action on metal surface with and without corrosion products is developed.