Technology and equipment for thermal distillation of liquid waste in closed life support systems
A new technology for obtaining clean water from liquid waste in closed life support systems and equipment for its implementation has been developed. The main elements of the system are the original centrifugal distiller (CD), which ensures the efficiency of the system at arbitrary orientation of gravity, as well as weightlessness, with intensified heat and mass transfer processes and thermoelectric heat pump, which reduces the specific energy consumption of the system.
Refined dependences were obtained for the calculation of heat transfer for evaporation and condensation of water vapor in the field of centrifugal forces, which underlie the method of calculating
A new mathematical model of an optimized thermal distillation system has been developed, which is based on refined data on heat transfer during condensation and evaporation on surfaces of different configurations in the field of action of centrifugal forces. The design of the centrifugal vacuum distiller is equipped with built-in pumps based on the Pitot-Prandtl tube, which provide the necessary movement of working fluids in the distillation system and in the elements of CD without the use of other pumps.
Possible schemes of thermoelectric heat pump (THP) connection in a system with a centrifugal distiller, using hybrid methods of energy recovery (multistage and Peltier effect) have been worked out.
For the first time, the conditions for preventing the deposition of crystals of solutes during the film flow of a liquid on a rotating surface were determined.
A new design of the final condenser of the distiller has been developed, which will increase the THP efficiency.
A new technology of solution purification using crystallization of dissolved substances has been developed, which will increase the water regeneration coefficient.